martes, 30 de octubre de 2012

Mary, virgin

The Christian tradition has regarded as Joachim and Anne parents of Mary. These names are taken from the Gospel of James, one of the most famous apocryphal gospels and old. This assumption has been benchmarked data for many pious on the life of the Virgin Mary.

There is no security if Mary had sisters. Although some data taken by certain Gospel of St. John and St. Matthew who referred to "his mother's sister," which would be Mary of Cleophas, Hegesippus mentions this Mary as wife of Cleophas, brother of Joseph and therefore concuñada of Mary: a Hebrew marriage would not put the same name to two of his daughters carnal.

Mary was betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth, who was a carpenter. According to the Jewish tradition of the time, young men were desposaban between eighteen and twenty-four, while young women from twelve maidens were considered (na'arah) from that age could marry. The Jewish couple had two moments, betrothal and marriage itself: the first was held at the bride's house and brought with agreements and obligations, even in common life was back. If the bride had been married before expected one year after the betrothal to get to the second part, the marriage itself, where the groom wore the bride solemnly from his parents to his.

The presence of Mary in the biblical narrative begins with the appearance of Archangel Gabriel to Mary, as the Evangelist Luke recounts:

"In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to the city of Nazareth, in search of a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of King David, and the virgin's name was Mary. Entering the angel said to her bedroom: "Hail, full of grace! The Lord is with you ".

From the moment of the Annunciation, when the initial project life of Mary seems to be upset, starts a sequence of risks and uncertainties identified by the Gospels of Luke and Mateo.17 The first uncertainty is presented in relation to the origin of his conception. Indeed, uncertainty seems to strike at the heart of her betrothed Joseph, and leads him to his intention to divorce Mary secretly to put in evidencia.18 So not what God has planned Joseph when he made ​​known his plans for a Dream "Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins. "19 Thereafter, Joseph co-participates in the risks that arise in the life of Mary, as detailed below .

Mary, already pregnant, visits her cousin Elizabeth, as the angel Gabriel announced that she, too, although old, was pregnant, Mary travels to a mountain population of Judea, which is now known as Ain Karim.

Arriving Mary Elizabeth carrying the child in her womb leaps for joy. Isabel then recognizes Mary as the "Mother of the Lord" and praises. Maria Isabel answered with a song of praise to God.

Before a decree from Caesar Augustus, that a census ordered, Joseph and Mary are forced to take a journey from Nazareth in Galilee to Bethlehem in Judea, when she is about to give birth. As found no place to stay, Mary must give birth in a manger.

On the occasion of the presentation of Jesus in the Temple in Jerusalem to comply with the law that mandates that every firstborn male is to be consecrated to the Lord, there is a new sign of insecurity for Mary. A just and devout man named Simeon, who is revealed to not see death before seeing Christ, recognized the son of Mary to salvation, a light for revelation to the Gentiles and glory of God's people, Israel.

But then a prophecy by Simeon through the figure of Mary:

"His father and mother marveled at what was said about him. Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother," he was born for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign of contradiction - and a sword will pierce your soul! - So that will be exposed the thoughts of many hearts. "

Days later, some scholars "magicians" of the East are in search of the "King of Kings". When you enter the house, and see Mary with her ​​son fall down and worship him. The visit attracted the attention of Herod who orders to kill all the children under one year of Bethlehem and its vicinity. The risk is hanging back on the Holy Family. But the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and tells her: "Get up, take the child and his mother and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word.: For Herod will seek the young child to destroy him" .

When they die those seeking the child's life, making him the baby Joseph and his mother and go into the land of Israel. But he learns a new risk: Archelaus reigns in Judea in place of his father Herod, so afraid to go there. And being warned in his dreams, he withdrew to Galilee, Specifically to the city of Nazareth.

After suffering the loss of his son in the Temple of Jerusalem and have searched for 3 days, to find Mary tells her son: "Son Why have you done this to us? Look, your father and I, anxious been looking for you ". Maria Jesus answers with a question that she does not understand.

During the public ministry of Jesus, Mary is mentioned in the Gospels as "his mother", a special situation that does not belong to any community member. "Blessed is the womb that bore you and the breasts that you sucked", 43 said a voice from the crowd, and are now crying Christians. As noted below, particular importance is often put in the virginity of Mary in her Immaculate Conception and, above all, in her divine motherhood. Jesus replied, "Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and do it" 44 Christ says that there are other beings happier than his mother. What I said is that the main reason is the blessedness of Mary, not only in having conceived the Son of God, but hearing his word and have put into practice, believing in him, 24 just as Isabel had said before: "Blessed are you who have believed.".

In the Gospel according to John, the entire public life of Jesus is framed by the only two passages in which his mother appears, and that are unique to this gospel. This is the "Wedding at Cana" and the "death of God", as part of the beginning and end of Jesus' public ministry.

The Wedding at Cana occur when, as Jesus puts it, has not yet reached "its time" .49 However, at the request of Mary, Jesus performs his first sign, that his disciples believe in him. Mary appears to get "Time", 50 which is none other than the glorification of Jesus, his death and resurrection. On the cross, Jesus is calling his Madre.51 As at Cana, Mary is called by Jesus "Woman", and entrusted it "Mother" of the beloved disciple who is with her at the cross.

Mary acquires a symbolic value because at that moment passes, in the figure of the beloved disciple, to be the mother of Christ's disciples. It is called "Woman", and this word refers to the first woman in the beginning of Genesis, "Eve, mother of all living." Many Fathers of the Church (St. Jerome of Estridón, St. Augustine, St. Cyril of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, John Damascene) note in this regard that "if death through Eve, life through Mary came" 52 Now beginning a new creation, a new "woman" who is the Mother of the Church, mother of all living. The Catholic and Orthodox theologies emphasize that, under these two passages are those disciples of the Lord-as Mary calls do what He says, 53 that remain at the foot of the cross of the crucified alongside María54 and the receive as own mother, as did "the disciple whom Jesus loved" 55 48 Other interpretations are discussed below (see section "theological").

Degrees awarded to Mary:

- Mother of God.
- Mother of the Church.
- Redemptrix and lawyer.
- Queen of Heaven.
- Spiritual Mother.
- Universal Mediatrix.
- Ark of the Covenant.
- Educator of the Son of God.
- Hope of the Church and humanity.
- New Eve.
- Daughter of Zion.
- Icon of the Church.
- Immaculate Conception.
- Heavenly Intercessor.
- Advocate.
- Help.
- Mother of unity and hope.
- Mother of Carmel.
- Holy Virgin of virgins.
- Mother of Christ.
- Mother of men.
- Mother of divine grace.
- Mother inviolate.
- Mother most pure.
- Mother ever virgin.
- Immaculate Mother.
- Mother Friendly.
.- Mother admirable.
- Mother of Good Counsel.
- Mother of the Creator.
- Mother of the Savior.
- Mother of mercy.
- Virgin most prudent.
- Virgin most venerable.
- Virgin most renowned.
- Powerful Virgin.
- Virgin most merciful.
- Faithful Virgin.
- Mirror of Justice.
- Throne of Wisdom.
- Cause of our joy.
- Spiritual vessel.
- Vessel of honor.
- Glass of eminent piety.
- Mystical Rose.
- Tower of David.
- Ivory Tower.
- House of gold.
- Gate of Heaven.
- Morning Star.
- Health of the Sick.
- Refuge of sinners.
- Comfort of the afflicted.
- Help of Christians.
- Queen of Angels.
- Queen of the Patriarchs.
- Queen of Prophets.
- Queen of the Apostles.

- Queen of Martyrs.
- Queen of confessors.
- Queen of virgins.
- Queen of All Saints.
- Queen conceived without original sin.
- Queen assumed into heaven.
- Queen of the Holy Rosary.
- Queen of the family.
- Queen of Peace.

miércoles, 24 de octubre de 2012

Isabella of France. Queen Isabella of England "She wolf of France"

Isabella of France was born in 1292. She was the third and last of the daughters of King Philip IV of France and Queen Joanna of Navarre, was the sister of King Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV. Her English contemporaries call it "The She Wolf of France".

She married King Edward II of England, after arduous negotiations that lasted nearly 10 years, in the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer, on January 25, 1308.

Since coming to the English court Isabel was celebrated for her beauty. It was described as "the fairest of the fair ... in the kingdom but perhaps in all of Europe." However, her beauty did not attract enough her ​​husband, who preferred the company of his favorite, Piers Gaveston.

Despite all the royal couple had 4 children:

- Edward III of England.
- John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall.
- Eleanor, Countess of Guelders.
- Joanna of England, Queen of Scots.

Over the years, the king leaned more toward his favorite, Piers Gaveston and Despenser, relegating the queen. On one occasion, he came to leave his fate in the dangerous town of Tynemouth, in Scotland. Miraculously, Isabel escaped the army of Robert Bruce and reach the English coast.

The queen despised above all Hugh Despenser the Younger among all her husband's favorite. In 1321, while she was pregnant with her youngest child, Elizabeth begged dramatically to banish forever the kingdom to the family Despenser. The king obeyed and exiled, but that same year Despenser reinstated in court. This eventually return to the queen totally against him. Isabel helped Sir Roger Mortimer, Baron of Wigmore, to escape from the Tower of London, where the king had imprisoned for opposing Despenser.

Eager to escape her husband, Elizabeth found the perfect opportunity when King Charles IV of France, the third of her brothers-ceded to his brother Edward II of England his French possessions: the duchies of Aquitaine and Guyenne. The queen offered to go to France to secure peace between the two nations. There he was reunited with Mortimer, becoming his lover. Aware of this, the English king demanded the return of his wife, but King Charles IV of France refused to evict her sister in France.

Isabella and Roger Mortimer left the French court in 1326. Marched to the court of Count William of Hainault, whose wife was a cousin of Elizabeth. The Count of Hainault gave the armed assistance they needed, in exchange for his daughter Philippa commitment to the future King Edward III.

That same year, Isabella and Mortimer, commanding their mercenary army, reached the coast of Suffolk. Edward II offered a generous bounty on the heads of both, but all was lost to him. His allies abandoned him, the Despensers were killed and finally the king was captured and forced to abdicate in favor of his son in January 1327. In September of that same year the old king was murdered in Berkeley Castle, by order of the Queen and Mortimer.

Young Edward III was crowned king a few months later. From that moment, Isabella ruled as queen regent, together with her lover Mortimer. But the new king forgave Mortimer not have made ​​his mother's lover, she took control of the government and overtook him in 1330. Despite the entreaties and tears of life Isabella by her lover, Mortimer was tried for treason and hanged. Unfortunate to lose her love and the son was expected of him, Isabella, now Queen Mother, retired from the court to live in a self-banishment.

Isabella was confined in the castle of Hereford, in Roseing, where she died after taking clarisa nun's habit, the August 22, 1358, at 67 years of age. She was buried in the Franciscan Church of Newgate.