domingo, 2 de noviembre de 2014

The Christmas bonus.

It is remuneration received by the employee, in addition to the usual twelve monthly installments. 


The Romans called "strenae" exchanged gifts with friends to honor the gods, and as a sign of happy omen. A Roman tradition attributed the origin of the bonus king Titus Tatius, who was born in the habit of going (on January 1) to pick verbena, Strenua the sacred forest, the Force, or Strenia, the goddess of health, with in order to obtain divine protection during the new year. Another tradition supposed that the people went in procession to the palace to offer, while wishing him a good year, branches of the shrub verbena, considered as a bearer of happiness. The primitive simplicity disappeared, and bonuses came to be more or less luxurious objects, leading to degenerate into abuse.

The bonuses were very varied in nature. Arable bonuses correspond to the Golden Age; Then came the time when these were foods of all kinds; Later consisted of pieces of gold, silver and bronze; then furniture and clothing.

The bonuses were one of the rich expensive practice, ripped the poor, for the servants offered bonuses to their masters, citizens offered it to the princes, and the disciples to their teachers. The force of habit forced some to offer what they did not have. Against this obligation to give, wrote the Fathers of the Church, to prevent many Christians to forget what they were. Through these authors know about the custom of many people, especially the peasants, to put on the doors of their houses (during the night prior to January 1) tables laden with all kinds of food consumed for passersby.

In the Middle Ages, kings, princes and nobles continued to observe this practice.

The bonus as childish habit.

The bonus, in Spain, is also the gift of sweets that are distributed mainly in children's parties and Christmas day. 

It is customary among children, touring the neighborhood, house to house, singing carols accompanied by tambourines, friction drums and empty bottles of anis (like a musical instrument). In this case, instead of asking for money, children always ask for candies and sweets.

sábado, 1 de noviembre de 2014

The pig slaughter.

The pig slaughter is a regular number one method of slaughter, or pigs, in order to take advantage of his flesh, and elaborate inlays. These sausages are consumed for a year for a family. 

This practice is rooted in many European countries. Once a year it takes place during the coldest winter months (usually December). It usually has a festive and celebratory hand, has an economic side. 


Arriving in March (spring in the Iberian Peninsula) and the negotiation begins in livestock markets for the purchase of one or more pigs (gilts) for slaughter, to be sacrificed in the month of December. Thus, fattening always started 9 or 10 months before slaughter. The fattening pig was carefully planned, so that was fed to pigs with specific foods: cabbage, pumpkins, potatoes, beets, corncobs, thistles, nettles, wheat flour, rye flour, cereal, apples, pears, quinces, etc. In rural areas, it was common for landlords calculate the number of pigs they need to feed their serfs during the harvest period, depending on the amount of land cultivated, since the pork was the main ingredient of the broth they were given as maintenance.

The fattening. 

In Extremadura, and other regions where the meadows, with oak trees, fattening abound is the last phase of pig breeding. This occurs when pigs are left free in the pasture, coinciding with the ripening and falling acorn, in the months of October, November and December. The fattening on acorns, grass and herbs of the meadow and the physical strain of animal, under liberalization, get their meat has a unique taste. 

Ranching in the northern regions of Spain was characterized by: 

- A strict immobilization of the animal (This is no longer made) in tiny pigsties, of which it is made ​​out to the pig once a day to take a walk around the farm, when the farmers took the opportunity to clean the pigsty . 

- A select different vegetables and diet food, for taking the pig out the appropriate weight of about 15 pounds (200 kg).

The days before slaughter. 

The days before slaughter family meetings were held, usually inviting one or two neighbors and knives were prepared. Then the elders of the family chose a day to do the slaughter, a day that was anticipated without rain, fog, snow or humidity (ideal was a sunny day with a good morning frost). 

The slaughter. 

The day of the massacre have breakfast an hour or two before dawn. A hearty breakfast is usually taken as the day is often hard work. There are people who often accompany breakfast with a glass of brandy.

The session begins has barely left the Sun: between 9 and 10am. The butcher is provided with a hook which engages the jaw pig (the pig is already dead) and takes him to a wooden bench. Next to butcher several women and children with buckets and buckets are positioned to collect the blood and remove pork, preventing curdling. The pig's blood was later used for the production of sausages and pancakes.

Once the animal is bled, proceed to charred, burning the skin of the pig. To do this, it puts the pork on a bed of combustible material (broom, broom, bracken or straw) to remove hair from the skin. Then, with the help of a knife, pig skin is scraped to remove the burnt hair.

Then the pig is opened, and all the viscera are removed carefully keeping them. Part of the viscera, especially the intestines and stomach, are reserved and cleaned of its contents. This operation is performed generally by the women of the family who, all together, they head to the nearest stream and cleaned of all dirt. It is not a pleasant operation since odor, extreme cold and moisture are present during the process.

After this, a sample (from different parts of meat) to the vet in the region is given (usually usually first thing in the morning, the third day of slaughter) and he gives his verdict at noon, if the verdict is positive children, tail pig roast and eat.

In the afternoon we continue with cleaning the viscera and begins to chop the bread, cook the rice and onions to make the sausages. That day, in the evening, a dinner is held on the first pig meat is eaten.

The minced meat is done the day after. In the morning cutting out the parts of the pig is cut up and shared among different "specialists": people who salted hams and pork shoulders; people mince meat, seasoned and added garlic to make chorizo; persons marinating pork loin; people who put salted bacon, etc.

That day, a fire is lit and the first pieces of meat are roasted, seasoned with garlic and paprika, and accompanied by a good young wine.

After eating, the removal of fat from the pork is done. Grease gets into a pot and melt in fire. The liquid fat is left to cool in earthen jars. Part of this fat can be used in soap making.

To embed the sausage special machine is used. This machine, by pressing enter chopped (and seasoned) meat in the gut of the pig.

After smoking occurs. Smoking is a very important operation because it depends on the good condition of the sausage. In this operation the younger people work. Is to put the sausage on a large fire with fire and smoke. The smoked sausage concludes when is dry and suitable for consumption.

Song of the Sibyl.

The Song of the Sibyl is a liturgical drama Gregorian melody was widely publicized during the Middle Ages (in Southern Europe), which is traditionally interpreted in the mince (Midnight Mass) in Churches Island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) and in the city of Alghero (Sardinia, Italy). 

Indeed, Mallorca and Alghero are the only two places in this song is a tradition that extends from the late Middle Ages to today, having been immune to the ban occurred at the Council of Trent (1545-1563). Precisely because of this, on 16 November 2010, this tradition was declared by UNESCO as Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Sybil is a doomsday prophetess of classical mythology, introduced and adapted to Christianity by analogy can be drawn between this prophecy and the biblical concept of Judgment. 

The oldest evidence of this Christianized song, and sung in monasteries, is contributed by a Latin manuscript of the Monastery of Saint Martial de Limoges (France), in the Carolingian Empire. In Spain, the oldest document preserved a manuscript of the Visigoth period, belonging to the Mozarabic liturgy. From the eleventh century data also Ripoll manuscript written in Latin, in the field of Hispanic liturgy.

The Song of the Sibyl constituted, therefore, a Christian cultural tradition which had as its central theme the Day of Judgement (trial to be broadcast on Good and bad people). Initially it was not like today's Christmas Eve. 

Letter Song of the Sibyl (Mallorca, XV century).

The day of judgment will come to anyone who has served. 

Jesus Christ, Universal King, eternal God and true man, he will come from the sky. And each one just given. 

Sky will drop a big fire: seas, springs and rivers, everything will burn. Fishes show great shouts, losing natural delights. 

Before Judgment, the Antichrist will come, and everyone will torment. He will be served, as God. Who does not want to believe, he will kill him. 

His reign will be very short. At that time, his power, die martyrs, all on one site, and those two saints, Elijah and Enoch.

The Sun will lose clarity, showing dark and clouded. The moon will not give light and the world will be sad. 

The King of the Universe will say to the wicked, very angrily: 

- Go, you cursed, into the torment! Go with the eternal fire! Go to hell with your prince! 

The King of the Universe will say to the good: 

- My children, come! Blessed, inherit the kingdom which I have given you since the world was created!

Oh humble Virgin! You who have given birth to the baby Jesus tonight.Pray to your son to save us from hell! 

The day of judgment will come to anyone who has served.

viernes, 24 de octubre de 2014

Night of the Dead or Magosto

It is a celebration of Celtic origin, celebrated in some parts of northern Spain, such as Galicia, Catalonia, Cantabria, Aragon, Asturias and León province. It is also a very popular holiday in Portugal. Internationally known as "chestnut Party." 

The common elements in this party are: the celebration of the Night of Souls, chestnut and fire.

On the night of October 31 is usually held this party, which includes many fire roasted chestnuts, new wine and sausages. 

The party is to make a fire and, once there embers, placed on it a large metal pan with holes in its base, called drum. About this pan, chestnuts, which have been subjected to a cut on one end to extend not explode. Once roasted, chestnuts are peeled and eaten. 

It is common, Smudging face with the remains of the fire, jump over the fire, telling stories and singing folk songs. 

The chestnut Party in Catalonia.

It is the Catalan and Aragonese variant of this traditional festival. Roasted chestnuts, panellet, sweet potatoes and candied fruit are tasted. The typical drink of this celebration is the muscatel wine. 

The custom of eating these foods (high energy) is because during the Night of Souls, vigil of the Day of the Dead, the bells rang incessantly until dawn. Friends and relatives helped the ringer in this difficult task, and all this food consumed not falter. 

It usually represents the figure of the woman steamy chestnut: an older woman dressed in poor clothes and a headscarf, with a street vendor roasting chestnuts.


In Spain, the traditional Christmas food is usually based on abundant sweet dishes. Three days significantly in the Spanish Christmas Special: Christmas dinner, New Year's Eve and the Epiphany. The Christmas meal is characterized by all Christian traditions. It should be noted nougat (the most famous is the hard nougat), the shortbread, marzipan, dates, sugared almonds, alfajores or almond soup. 

Also typical dishes eat these dates, such as suckling pig, free range chicken, turkey, capon, lamb, sea bream, clam meat, cooked meat (in Catalonia), prawns and seafood. In Galicia is also often eat cod with cauliflower, on Christmas Eve.

On December 31 (New Years Eve) is tradition to eat 12 grapes at the rate of twelve strokes marked by the Puerta del Sol, once it enters the new year, you will be welcomed with a Cava toast. At dawn or morning of January 1 (New Year's Day) is usually breakfast Chocolate with churros. On January 6 (Epiphany) is usually eaten for a snack, cake of Epiphany.

The "Cordial" is a typical sweet of the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain). They are usually served accompanied with marzipan sweets and shortbread. Is strictly required to consume within 5 days of its development, as they spoil very quickly. 


- 1 kg of raw almonds. 
- 9 eggs. 
- 800 gr of sugar. 
- 1kg of candied pumpkin. 
- Scrape the skin of 1 lemon. 
- Wafers. 


- Cleaned and peeled almonds (with hot water). Chop and dried. 
- Add the sugar, grated lemon rind and eggs. Mix until a homogeneous mass is made. 
- Take small amounts of almond dough, make a well in the center and fill with candied pumpkin, close giving a cone shape. 
- Place on the wafers, and bake at 180 degrees for 25 minutes.

jueves, 27 de marzo de 2014

House Jeneret.

It was the institution responsible for the education of the princes and princesses of ancient Egypt. Lived there: the mother of Pharaoh, the Great Royal Wife, secondary wives and the sons and daughters of all the queens and concubines. It was next to the palace, independent of the actual building, and had a great importance. 

The word "Jeneret" means "house of beauty".

The ladies of the house Jeneret were educated in many aspects, but most were educated in dance and music, learning to ring the harp, lute or flute. Their ritual dances and melodies appease the gods and the atmosphere of harmony to the world rejoiced. 

An important activity that was made in this palace was making clothes and making beautiful beauty and grooming utensils, as possessed pottery workshops, carpentry and weaving, as well as barns. In addition, leased land for their own profit. They also had reservations for hunting and fishing.

The palace hierarchy depended on the Great Royal Wife, officials working in the workshops, administrators and servants. The director held the title of "Venerable" and the other women of the nobility, held the title of "Royal Ornament".

In the Old Kingdom the high dignitaries of the empire married women in high positions in Jeneret House. So these could rise more easily and the monarch greater fidelity is assured. 

This institution came to have great influence, and during the New Kingdom, was granted the power to engage in foreign policy decisions. The messenger, picking orders Jeneret home when Pharaoh was in a military campaign or diplomatic mission. The queens were engaged in correspondence with sovereign Allied or enemy countries. It also came to discuss matters of succession, sometimes without the knowledge of the pharaoh. Various pharaohs were sons of secondary wives.


An odalisque was a female slave in the harem of the Ottoman Empire. She was an assistant or apprentice to the concubines and wives of the sultan, and afterwards get to get that state, ie be concubine, or, with luck, wife.

An odalisque was not a concubine of the harem , but could become so. The odalisques were classified in the bottom of the social stratification of the harem, ie not served the man of the house , but rather , his concubines and wives as personal servants. The concubines were often gifts to the Sultan, or a rich man ( Pasha ) . Usually concubines were kept under the direct supervision of the mother of the Sultan ( the Sultan Valide ) . If an odalisque possessed extraordinary beauty or had exceptional talents in dancing or singing, a chance to be a concubine . If she was selected , an odalisque trained as a concubine of the Sultan , sexually serve , and only after sexual contact , change their status becoming a concubine. In the Ottoman Empire , concubines encountered the sultan only once, unless they were especially skilled in dance , singing , or the sexual arts , gaining the attention of the sultan. If a concubine , by having sex with the Sultan , became pregnant and gave birth to a son, and this was acknowledged by the Sultan , automatically became one of his wives .

lunes, 24 de marzo de 2014

Adolph Suarez. First President of the Democratic Kingdom of Spain.

(1932 - 2014) was a politician and Spanish lawyer, prime minister of Spain between 1976 and 1981. For his services to the country, King John Charles I of Spain granted the duchy of Suarez, with greatness of Spain, and was also a Knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece He was retired from public life since 2003, as consequence of Alzheimer's disease. He died on March 23, 2014 due to pneumonia.

Adolph was born in Cebreros (autonomous community of Castile and León) by decision of his mother, for there had their family roots. However, his residence was already established in the city of Avila. He had four brothers.

His mother was a devout daughter of small business woman, while her father was a court attorney (a player and ladies' man) with whom he never got along. 

Adolph was never a good student. He went through several schools, not reading and hobbies had more to do with the holidays, sports and card games. It was a natural leader in his gang and was very attractive to women. Also corresponded to the religiosity of his mother founding and presiding from his teenage various organizations associated with Catholic Action.

He married Amparo Illana, with whom he had five children: Mary (Mariam familiarly called), Adolph, Laura, Sonsoles and Francisco.

He studied law at the University of Salamanca, graduating with certain difficulties. In early 1955, there were only recently got his first paying job in Charities of Avila, where his father ran away from home as a result of a business scandal. Unable to keep himself to his family in August met Falangist linked to Opus Dei, Fernando Herrero Tejedor, who had just been appointed civil governor and provincial head of the Movement in Avila and became his political mentor, helping hold in his profession.

At the beginning of the course 1958 - 1959 he entered the Colegio Mayor Francisco Franco-located in the University City of Madrid in order to prepare oppositions. He received his Ph.D. in Law from the Complutense University of Madrid. He held various positions within the structures of the dictatorship. Thus, in 1958, became part of the General Secretariat of the ascending movement, in 1961, to Chief of the Technical Office of the Deputy Secretary General, Attorney in cuts in 1967 Avila and Segovia Civil Governor of Year 1968. In 1969 he was appointed Director General of Radio Spanish Television, where he remained in office until 1973.

On 11 December 1975, it became part of the first cabinet of President Arias Navarro, formed after the death of the dictator Franco. At the suggestion of Torcuato Fernandez, Adolph, was appointed Minister Secretary General of the Movement.

On June 9, 1976, in a speech on the Law of Political Associations in the Spanish Courts before his election, he cited a verse the poet Antonio Machado, who died in exile:

"Allow me to finish ... and remember the verses of a Spanish poet: 

Is today opened for the morning 
Tomorrow at infinity 
Men of Spain: 
Neither the past is dead 
Nor is the writing tomorrow or yesterday."

When in July 1976, King Juan Charles I of Spain asked him to form the second government of his reign and the subsequent dismantling of the dictatorial political, Adolph was a stranger to most of the Spanish people. However, at age 43, with no little difficulty, he was able to bring together a group of politicians of his generation who had come to the democratic convictions in various ways. Able to gather together a fascist "converts" as him, Social Democrats, Liberals, Christian Democrats, etc.. and between 1976 and 1979, dismantle the fascist regime with the complicity of the fascist parties like the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) and especially the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) and its leader, Santiago Carrillo, who called Adolph as "an intelligent anticommunist".

In this task, enlisted the help of Torcuato Fernández, among others, who managed the reverse of fascist Courts and take forward the project of political reform to a suspicious democratic opposition and with the collaboration of Lieutenant General Manuel Gutiérrez, responsible for reassurance and control, if possible, to the high military, composed, for the most part, military areas that participated in the Spanish Civil War and prone to fascist regime.

On 15 June 1977, for the first time in Spain since 1936, free elections were held. Adolph stood as the winner of the same, in front of a giant central party, gathered around him, under the symbol UCD (Union Democratic Center). Courts chosen in those elections, converted Constituent Cortes approved the Constitution, which the Spanish people endorsing on 6 December 1978.

On 3 March 1979, Adolph second time winning the general election, and began his third term as Prime Minister. However, the victory in the elections was much in the background after the accession of the Left parties to the main municipalities of the country after the first municipal elections in April. The agreement between the PSOE and PCE allowed big Spanish cities were governed by mayors from opposition parties.

It was a stage full of political governance difficulties, social and economic. In 1980, the PSOE presented a motion of censure, although defeated in advance, further damaged the image of an Adolf devoid of support in his own party. Finally, on 29 January 1981, he resigned both as Prime Minister as head of the political party Democratic Union Center. In his message to the country, which lasted 12 minutes and was broadcast on Spanish TV at 19:40, said: 

"I do not want the democratic system of coexistence be, again, a parenthesis in the history of Spain"

This led to think that Adolph resigned under pressure from the military. This theory seemed confirmed by the attempted coup that took place on 23 February 1981, during the investiture of Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo. That same year, the King John Charles I of Spain granted the title of Duke of Suárez, by virtue of its role in the transition process.

In 1996 he was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Concord, for their important contribution to the Spanish transition to democracy, which is considered a great architect. 

Both his wife Amparo (1935 - 2001), and his daughter Mary (1962 - 2004), suffered and died of cancer. Amparo died on 17 May 2001 at age 66, at his home in Madrid after being operated on in 1994 for breast cancer suffering. Mary died almost 3 years later, on 7 March 2004, at age 41 in Madrid. Another daughter of Adolph, Sonsoles, television presenter, has also suffered from breast cancer. Adolph has three other children: Adolph who was a candidate for president of the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha in 2003, Laura, who also suffered breast cancer and was operated successfully in 2012, and Francisco.

Des 2003, Adolph, did not reappear in public, just being his son Adolph who, during an interview for "Cherries" from Spanish Television May 31, 2005, made ​​public program that former President Adolfo, suffered from Alzheimer's disease for 2 years, so do not even remember having been President of the Government and did not recognize anyone, responding only to affective stimuli. That same year, give the "Players" Presenter program Luis del Olmo (Punto Radio) was made ​​a tribute to which were added: his son Adolph, Santiago Carrillo, former President Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, former President Felipe Gonzalez, former President Jose Maria Aznar and the then Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero.

On 8 June 2007, on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the first democratic elections after the dictatorship, King John Charles I of Spain named him Knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece, for its significant performance in the Spanish transition . Unable to attend, his poor health, his son picked up the award, who read a speech on behalf of his father.

On 21 March 2014, his son Adolph announced that the state of his father's health had deteriorated due to pneumonia and that the "end was imminent", revealing that he was hospitalized in critical condition. Two days later he died in a clinic in Madrid, aged 81. 

At the chapel, installed in the House of Representatives, came to see him off big political personalities, the Kings of Spain, the princes of Asturias, the Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy and the three former presidents (except Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, they died in 2008). Also attended by thousands of citizens, reaching queues will form two kilometers outside the funeral home chapel. The state funeral will be held on May 31 this year.

sábado, 15 de marzo de 2014

Princess of Eboli.

Anne of Mendoza, Princess of Eboli, Duchess of Pastrana and Countess of Melito (1540 - 1592) was a Spanish aristocrat.

Anne belonged to one of the most powerful of the time Spanish families: Mendoza. Only daughter between Diego Hurtado of Mendoza, Viceroy of Aragon, and Mary Catherine of Silva, married at the age of twelve years (1552) with Ruy Gómez de Silva, on the recommendation of Prince Philip, the future King Philip II of Spain, her husband was the prince of Eboli (city in the Kingdom of Naples) and minister of the king. Ruy commitments forced him to travel to England for five years, so the couple just made ​​3 months together.

She was one of the most talented women of her time, and though she lost an eye during a training fencing was one of the most beautiful ladies of the Spanish court. Among the theories being considered on the loss of her right eye, the most supported is what ensures that the princess was damaged by the tip of a foil driven by a page in childhood. However this is not clear. In any case, no physical defect remained beauty to his face, her lofty character and love of luxury became her best display label, and she had a great influence in court.

During the period of their marriage, Anne's life was stable. They had ten children:

- Diego. Died in infancy.
- Anne. Duchess of Medina Sidonia.
- Rodrigo. Duke of Pastrana.
- Peter. Died in infancy.
- Diego. Marquis of Alenquer and Duke of Salinas.
- Ruy. Count of Castañeda.
- Ferdinand. Archbishop of Zaragoza.
- Mary and Maria Manuela. Twins. Died in infancy.
- Anne. Who accompanied her mother on her years of confinement.

She asked, along with her husband, two nunneries (Order of the Discalced Carmelites) in Pastrana. She hindered the work because she wanted convents are so constructed according to her dictates, which caused numerous conflicts with nuns, monks, and, above all, with St. Teresa, founder of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. Her husband made ​​peace, but when he died back problems since the princess wanted to be a nun and her maids were all too. This wish was granted reluctantly by St. Teresa and placed her in an austere cell. The princess soon tired of cell nun and moved to a house in the garden of the convent with her ​​maids. There she would wardrobes for clothes and jewelry, in addition to having direct communication with the street and get out at will. Given this rudeness, and by order of St. Teresa, the nuns left the convent and left the city of Pastrana. The princess was forced to return to her palace in Madrid, but not before posting a distorted biography of St. Teresa, which scandalized the Inquisition, who banned the literary work for 10 years.

After the sudden death of her husband, Anna was forced to manage her vast heritage and, for the rest of her life, had a troubled existence. Thanks to her influential names secured a comfortable position for her children.

Due to her high position, she had close ties to the then Prince (and later King) Philip II, which encouraged several nobles to catalog her as a lover of the king, mainly during his marriage with the young Princess Elizabeth of Valois, of which was close friend. What seems certain is that once stood illicit relations with widow said Antonio Perez, secretary of the king. This illicit relationship was discovered by Juan de Escobedo, secretary of John of Hapsburg (illegitimate son of King Charles I of Spain), who also maintained contact with the Dutch rebels. The lover of the princess, fearing that reveal the secret, he denounced the young infant secretary having had severe political maneuvering and Escobedo dawned dead lunges. The reasons of intrigue that led to the murder of Escobedo and princess fall are unclear.

The princess was imprisoned by Philip II in 1579, first in the Tower of Pinto, then the strength of Santorcaz and deprived of the custody of her children and the administration of his property, to be moved in 1581 to her Ducal Palace of Pastrana, where he attended perish by his younger daughter (Ana) and three servants. It is well known that the lattice palace balcony overlooking Time Square, where the princess was leaning in a melancholy countenance. After the flight of Antonio Perez to Aragon, in 1590, King Philip II ordered put bars on the doors and windows of the Ducal Palace.

It is also unclear why the cruel attitude of Philip II for Princess Anne, who in her letters called him "cousin" and called him one of them "to protect her like a gentleman." Philip II referred to her as "female". Curiously, while the attitude of Philip II to the princess was harsh and disproportionate always protected and cared for the children of this and of his late friend Ruy. She died in the town of Pastrana, being buried next to her husband in the Collegiate Pastrana.

martes, 11 de marzo de 2014

Madeleine of France.

(Tours, December 1, 1443 - Pamplona, ​​January 21, 1495) Princess of Viana and Queen Regent of Navarre.

She was the daughter of King Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou. In autumn of 1457 the Hungarian archbishop of Kalocsa, reached the French court with a retinue of 700 knights intended to ask for the hand of Princess Madeleine to the young King Ladislaus V of Hungary. The arrival of the Hungarians was well received and on 18 December of that year, Gaston of Foix, organized a big party in their honor. Trumpeters and Hungarian dancers amazed the French, and when everything seemed to have been successful, 11 days later came the news of the death of the young Hungarian monarch, after which the engagement immediately disbanded.

Soon after, in 1462, Magdalena was given in marriage to the Prince of Viana (crown prince of the kingdom of Navarre), Gaston of Foix, whose marriage were born two children: 

- Francis. King of Navarre. 
- Catherine. Queen of Navarre.

She was widowed in 1470 when her husband died from injuries he suffered in a tournament and was badly treated. Nine years later, Queen Eleanor I died I of Navarre, falling the crown on his son Francis (who was still an infant), Madeleine leaving the kingdom as regent until her son came of age. They were moments of great pressure from the Kingdoms of Castile and France, interested in marrying the young king with some of their candidates. On 30 January 1483, the young Francis was killed and his younger sister inherited the kingdom.

Little Catherine was also a minor when she inherited the kingdom, so Madeleine had to continue as Queen Regent. Madeleine married her daughter with John of Albret, to end the pressure from the kingdoms of Castile and France. However, this earned her the enmity of the Kingdom of Castile, who was nominated for the son of the Catholic Monarchs, Prince John of Aragon and Castile.

domingo, 9 de marzo de 2014

Eleanor of Navarre

(1426 - 1479) Princess of Aragon and Navarre. Queen of Navarre and Princess of Girona.

Family origins.

Born on February 2, 1426, was the youngest daughter of Prince John "Without Faith" of Aragon and Queen Bianche I of Navarre.

The problem of the Kingdom of Navarre.

John "Without Faith" was King of Navarre by marriage from the year 1425 to year 1441. His daughter was recognized by the Courts of Navarre August 9, 1427, although the heirs were his older brothers, Prince Charles and Princess Bianche.

On the death of Bianche I of Navarre, in the year 1441, John "Without Faith" seized the Kingdom of Navarre and not fulfilled the will of his wife. John "Without Faith" was King of Navarre (robbery) from 1441-1479 (and king of the territories of the Crown of Aragon). In 1445 John "Without Faith" disinherited his son, Charles of Navarre, the legitimate heir of the Kingdom of Aragon and Navarre so, Charles opposed his father and fought during the Civil War of Navarra. Eleanor was complicit in this usurpation her father, especially in times of her sister Bianche II of Navarre (1424-1464). Bianche II fell into disgrace by helping her brother Charles, which led to Eleanor should become the instrument of the Aragonese king against his children, his opponents. So, Eleanor was proclaimed, with her husband Gaston of Foix, heirs of the kingdom by the Treaty of Barcelona in 1455. Eleanor was appointed Governor General of the Kingdom of Navarre. The story goes that after the death of his older brother, Charles, her father John would have given her (as prey) her older sister Bianche II of Navarre, whom he imprisoned and died poisoned by her order.

In 1465, Eleanor managed to sign a truce and named itself "eldest princess, heiress of Navarre, princess of Aragon and Sicily, Countess of Foix and Bigorre and lieutenant general by the most serene king, my lord and father in this kingdom of Navarre ".

At this time, Eleanor and John "Without Faith" staged a battle for the throne of the Kingdom of Navarre. In 1468, John, sent to assassinate the Bishop of Pamplona, ​​the first counselor of his daughter. Later, John, dismissed his daughter by lieutenant general and introduced his grandson, Gaston. The untimely death of his grandson, John and did recap, in 1471, reappointed her daughter Eleanor as governor of the Kingdom of Navarre, although did give up the rights to the Crown of Aragon. Gaston of Foix died in 1472, when he had help from his viscounty to the kingdom of Navarre. She besieged by the expanding interests of France, Aragon and Castile saw her kingdom, which was not titular queen, was threatened and their rights over it.

In her will she claimed all the titles of his brother, Charles, in fulfillment of the will provided for her mother. She appointed heir to her grandson, Francis of Foix, recommending the protection of the king of France.

Marriage and descendants.

The July 30, 1436, she married Count Gaston IV of Foix. The couple were 11 years old and consummated the marriage would later, as the first son born in 1443. From this marriage were born 10 children:

  • Prince Gaston de Foix, Crown Prince of Navarre. He married Princess Madeleine of Orleans. His children will be kings of Navarre and his descendants will be kings of France.

  • Francis of Foix and Orleans. King of Navarre.

  • Catherine of Foix and Orleans. Queen of Navarre.

  • Prince Peter of Foix. Bishop of Vannes, Cardinal and Archbishop of Arle.
  • Prince John of Foix. Viscount of Narbonne, Count of Etampes. Father of Germaine de Foix, wife of King Ferdinand "The Catholic". 
  • Princess Mary of Foix. Marchioness of Montferrat. 
  • Prince Jaime de Foix. Marquis of Monfort. 
  • Princess Johanna of Foix. Countess of Armagnac. 
  • Princess Margaret of Foix. Duchess of Brittany. Mother of Anne of Brittany.
  • Princess Catherine de Foix, Countess of Candale. Mother Anne of Candale, Queen of Hungary.
  • Princess Elizabeth of Foix. Died in infancy.
  • Princess Eleanor of Foix. Died in infancy.

  • jueves, 6 de marzo de 2014

    Blanche I of Navarra.

    (1387 - 1441) she was Countess de Nemours and Queen of Navarre.

    Family origins.

    Daughter of Charles III of Navarre and his wife Eleanor of Castile. She was named heiress of the Kingdom of Navarre on 28 October 1416 by her father, being the larger of the two surviving daughters of marriage only.

    Marriage and descendants:

    On 21 May 1402 she married, by proxy, at the Cathedral of Catania and 26 December of the same year she married, in person, with Martin "The Young ', King of Sicily. From this marriage was born a son; 

    - Prince Martin of Aragon. Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Sicily, who died at 4 years of age.

    On the death of her husband, the king of Sicily, in 1409, Blanche came to govern the island, but finally returned to Navarre and married again.

    On 6 November 1419 she married, by proxy, at the Church of Olite and June 10, 1420 did, in person, at the Cathedral of Pamplona with Prince John of Aragon, King of Aragon future, more known as John the king "Without Faith". From this union were born: 

    - Prince Charles of Aragon. Crown Prince of Aragon and Navarre. 
    - Princess Johanna of Aragon. Died in infancy. 
    - Princess Blanche II of Navarre. Queen of Navarre and Queen consort of Castile. 
    - Princess Eleanor I of Navarre. Queen consort of Navarre and Countess of Foix.


    The loss of initiative characterized her reign. So, for her marriage to the king of Aragon, she allowed the kingdom of Navarre becomes subject at all to the will of the king of Aragon and their interests, losing (the kingdom) border territories as a result of the intervention of John II in affairs of Castile between 1428 and 1429.

    From the junction with John II, Prince Charles of Aragon was born that, according to the marriage settlement of 1419, had to inherit the Kingdom of Navarre after the death of his mother. But in the year 1441 the Queen died, John "Without Faith", usurped the throne of Navarre claiming that, in the will of the late Queen recommended to Charles did not crowned king without the consent of his father. The result was a 4-year civil war that ended with the death of Prince Charles.