jueves, 27 de marzo de 2014

House Jeneret.

It was the institution responsible for the education of the princes and princesses of ancient Egypt. Lived there: the mother of Pharaoh, the Great Royal Wife, secondary wives and the sons and daughters of all the queens and concubines. It was next to the palace, independent of the actual building, and had a great importance. 

The word "Jeneret" means "house of beauty".

The ladies of the house Jeneret were educated in many aspects, but most were educated in dance and music, learning to ring the harp, lute or flute. Their ritual dances and melodies appease the gods and the atmosphere of harmony to the world rejoiced. 

An important activity that was made in this palace was making clothes and making beautiful beauty and grooming utensils, as possessed pottery workshops, carpentry and weaving, as well as barns. In addition, leased land for their own profit. They also had reservations for hunting and fishing.

The palace hierarchy depended on the Great Royal Wife, officials working in the workshops, administrators and servants. The director held the title of "Venerable" and the other women of the nobility, held the title of "Royal Ornament".

In the Old Kingdom the high dignitaries of the empire married women in high positions in Jeneret House. So these could rise more easily and the monarch greater fidelity is assured. 

This institution came to have great influence, and during the New Kingdom, was granted the power to engage in foreign policy decisions. The messenger, picking orders Jeneret home when Pharaoh was in a military campaign or diplomatic mission. The queens were engaged in correspondence with sovereign Allied or enemy countries. It also came to discuss matters of succession, sometimes without the knowledge of the pharaoh. Various pharaohs were sons of secondary wives.


An odalisque was a female slave in the harem of the Ottoman Empire. She was an assistant or apprentice to the concubines and wives of the sultan, and afterwards get to get that state, ie be concubine, or, with luck, wife.

An odalisque was not a concubine of the harem , but could become so. The odalisques were classified in the bottom of the social stratification of the harem, ie not served the man of the house , but rather , his concubines and wives as personal servants. The concubines were often gifts to the Sultan, or a rich man ( Pasha ) . Usually concubines were kept under the direct supervision of the mother of the Sultan ( the Sultan Valide ) . If an odalisque possessed extraordinary beauty or had exceptional talents in dancing or singing, a chance to be a concubine . If she was selected , an odalisque trained as a concubine of the Sultan , sexually serve , and only after sexual contact , change their status becoming a concubine. In the Ottoman Empire , concubines encountered the sultan only once, unless they were especially skilled in dance , singing , or the sexual arts , gaining the attention of the sultan. If a concubine , by having sex with the Sultan , became pregnant and gave birth to a son, and this was acknowledged by the Sultan , automatically became one of his wives .

lunes, 24 de marzo de 2014

Adolph Suarez. First President of the Democratic Kingdom of Spain.

(1932 - 2014) was a politician and Spanish lawyer, prime minister of Spain between 1976 and 1981. For his services to the country, King John Charles I of Spain granted the duchy of Suarez, with greatness of Spain, and was also a Knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece He was retired from public life since 2003, as consequence of Alzheimer's disease. He died on March 23, 2014 due to pneumonia.

Adolph was born in Cebreros (autonomous community of Castile and León) by decision of his mother, for there had their family roots. However, his residence was already established in the city of Avila. He had four brothers.

His mother was a devout daughter of small business woman, while her father was a court attorney (a player and ladies' man) with whom he never got along. 

Adolph was never a good student. He went through several schools, not reading and hobbies had more to do with the holidays, sports and card games. It was a natural leader in his gang and was very attractive to women. Also corresponded to the religiosity of his mother founding and presiding from his teenage various organizations associated with Catholic Action.

He married Amparo Illana, with whom he had five children: Mary (Mariam familiarly called), Adolph, Laura, Sonsoles and Francisco.

He studied law at the University of Salamanca, graduating with certain difficulties. In early 1955, there were only recently got his first paying job in Charities of Avila, where his father ran away from home as a result of a business scandal. Unable to keep himself to his family in August met Falangist linked to Opus Dei, Fernando Herrero Tejedor, who had just been appointed civil governor and provincial head of the Movement in Avila and became his political mentor, helping hold in his profession.

At the beginning of the course 1958 - 1959 he entered the Colegio Mayor Francisco Franco-located in the University City of Madrid in order to prepare oppositions. He received his Ph.D. in Law from the Complutense University of Madrid. He held various positions within the structures of the dictatorship. Thus, in 1958, became part of the General Secretariat of the ascending movement, in 1961, to Chief of the Technical Office of the Deputy Secretary General, Attorney in cuts in 1967 Avila and Segovia Civil Governor of Year 1968. In 1969 he was appointed Director General of Radio Spanish Television, where he remained in office until 1973.

On 11 December 1975, it became part of the first cabinet of President Arias Navarro, formed after the death of the dictator Franco. At the suggestion of Torcuato Fernandez, Adolph, was appointed Minister Secretary General of the Movement.

On June 9, 1976, in a speech on the Law of Political Associations in the Spanish Courts before his election, he cited a verse the poet Antonio Machado, who died in exile:

"Allow me to finish ... and remember the verses of a Spanish poet: 

Is today opened for the morning 
Tomorrow at infinity 
Men of Spain: 
Neither the past is dead 
Nor is the writing tomorrow or yesterday."

When in July 1976, King Juan Charles I of Spain asked him to form the second government of his reign and the subsequent dismantling of the dictatorial political, Adolph was a stranger to most of the Spanish people. However, at age 43, with no little difficulty, he was able to bring together a group of politicians of his generation who had come to the democratic convictions in various ways. Able to gather together a fascist "converts" as him, Social Democrats, Liberals, Christian Democrats, etc.. and between 1976 and 1979, dismantle the fascist regime with the complicity of the fascist parties like the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) and especially the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) and its leader, Santiago Carrillo, who called Adolph as "an intelligent anticommunist".

In this task, enlisted the help of Torcuato Fernández, among others, who managed the reverse of fascist Courts and take forward the project of political reform to a suspicious democratic opposition and with the collaboration of Lieutenant General Manuel Gutiérrez, responsible for reassurance and control, if possible, to the high military, composed, for the most part, military areas that participated in the Spanish Civil War and prone to fascist regime.

On 15 June 1977, for the first time in Spain since 1936, free elections were held. Adolph stood as the winner of the same, in front of a giant central party, gathered around him, under the symbol UCD (Union Democratic Center). Courts chosen in those elections, converted Constituent Cortes approved the Constitution, which the Spanish people endorsing on 6 December 1978.

On 3 March 1979, Adolph second time winning the general election, and began his third term as Prime Minister. However, the victory in the elections was much in the background after the accession of the Left parties to the main municipalities of the country after the first municipal elections in April. The agreement between the PSOE and PCE allowed big Spanish cities were governed by mayors from opposition parties.

It was a stage full of political governance difficulties, social and economic. In 1980, the PSOE presented a motion of censure, although defeated in advance, further damaged the image of an Adolf devoid of support in his own party. Finally, on 29 January 1981, he resigned both as Prime Minister as head of the political party Democratic Union Center. In his message to the country, which lasted 12 minutes and was broadcast on Spanish TV at 19:40, said: 

"I do not want the democratic system of coexistence be, again, a parenthesis in the history of Spain"

This led to think that Adolph resigned under pressure from the military. This theory seemed confirmed by the attempted coup that took place on 23 February 1981, during the investiture of Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo. That same year, the King John Charles I of Spain granted the title of Duke of Suárez, by virtue of its role in the transition process.

In 1996 he was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Concord, for their important contribution to the Spanish transition to democracy, which is considered a great architect. 

Both his wife Amparo (1935 - 2001), and his daughter Mary (1962 - 2004), suffered and died of cancer. Amparo died on 17 May 2001 at age 66, at his home in Madrid after being operated on in 1994 for breast cancer suffering. Mary died almost 3 years later, on 7 March 2004, at age 41 in Madrid. Another daughter of Adolph, Sonsoles, television presenter, has also suffered from breast cancer. Adolph has three other children: Adolph who was a candidate for president of the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha in 2003, Laura, who also suffered breast cancer and was operated successfully in 2012, and Francisco.

Des 2003, Adolph, did not reappear in public, just being his son Adolph who, during an interview for "Cherries" from Spanish Television May 31, 2005, made ​​public program that former President Adolfo, suffered from Alzheimer's disease for 2 years, so do not even remember having been President of the Government and did not recognize anyone, responding only to affective stimuli. That same year, give the "Players" Presenter program Luis del Olmo (Punto Radio) was made ​​a tribute to which were added: his son Adolph, Santiago Carrillo, former President Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, former President Felipe Gonzalez, former President Jose Maria Aznar and the then Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero.

On 8 June 2007, on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the first democratic elections after the dictatorship, King John Charles I of Spain named him Knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece, for its significant performance in the Spanish transition . Unable to attend, his poor health, his son picked up the award, who read a speech on behalf of his father.

On 21 March 2014, his son Adolph announced that the state of his father's health had deteriorated due to pneumonia and that the "end was imminent", revealing that he was hospitalized in critical condition. Two days later he died in a clinic in Madrid, aged 81. 

At the chapel, installed in the House of Representatives, came to see him off big political personalities, the Kings of Spain, the princes of Asturias, the Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy and the three former presidents (except Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, they died in 2008). Also attended by thousands of citizens, reaching queues will form two kilometers outside the funeral home chapel. The state funeral will be held on May 31 this year.

sábado, 15 de marzo de 2014

Princess of Eboli.

Anne of Mendoza, Princess of Eboli, Duchess of Pastrana and Countess of Melito (1540 - 1592) was a Spanish aristocrat.

Anne belonged to one of the most powerful of the time Spanish families: Mendoza. Only daughter between Diego Hurtado of Mendoza, Viceroy of Aragon, and Mary Catherine of Silva, married at the age of twelve years (1552) with Ruy Gómez de Silva, on the recommendation of Prince Philip, the future King Philip II of Spain, her husband was the prince of Eboli (city in the Kingdom of Naples) and minister of the king. Ruy commitments forced him to travel to England for five years, so the couple just made ​​3 months together.

She was one of the most talented women of her time, and though she lost an eye during a training fencing was one of the most beautiful ladies of the Spanish court. Among the theories being considered on the loss of her right eye, the most supported is what ensures that the princess was damaged by the tip of a foil driven by a page in childhood. However this is not clear. In any case, no physical defect remained beauty to his face, her lofty character and love of luxury became her best display label, and she had a great influence in court.

During the period of their marriage, Anne's life was stable. They had ten children:

- Diego. Died in infancy.
- Anne. Duchess of Medina Sidonia.
- Rodrigo. Duke of Pastrana.
- Peter. Died in infancy.
- Diego. Marquis of Alenquer and Duke of Salinas.
- Ruy. Count of Castañeda.
- Ferdinand. Archbishop of Zaragoza.
- Mary and Maria Manuela. Twins. Died in infancy.
- Anne. Who accompanied her mother on her years of confinement.

She asked, along with her husband, two nunneries (Order of the Discalced Carmelites) in Pastrana. She hindered the work because she wanted convents are so constructed according to her dictates, which caused numerous conflicts with nuns, monks, and, above all, with St. Teresa, founder of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. Her husband made ​​peace, but when he died back problems since the princess wanted to be a nun and her maids were all too. This wish was granted reluctantly by St. Teresa and placed her in an austere cell. The princess soon tired of cell nun and moved to a house in the garden of the convent with her ​​maids. There she would wardrobes for clothes and jewelry, in addition to having direct communication with the street and get out at will. Given this rudeness, and by order of St. Teresa, the nuns left the convent and left the city of Pastrana. The princess was forced to return to her palace in Madrid, but not before posting a distorted biography of St. Teresa, which scandalized the Inquisition, who banned the literary work for 10 years.

After the sudden death of her husband, Anna was forced to manage her vast heritage and, for the rest of her life, had a troubled existence. Thanks to her influential names secured a comfortable position for her children.

Due to her high position, she had close ties to the then Prince (and later King) Philip II, which encouraged several nobles to catalog her as a lover of the king, mainly during his marriage with the young Princess Elizabeth of Valois, of which was close friend. What seems certain is that once stood illicit relations with widow said Antonio Perez, secretary of the king. This illicit relationship was discovered by Juan de Escobedo, secretary of John of Hapsburg (illegitimate son of King Charles I of Spain), who also maintained contact with the Dutch rebels. The lover of the princess, fearing that reveal the secret, he denounced the young infant secretary having had severe political maneuvering and Escobedo dawned dead lunges. The reasons of intrigue that led to the murder of Escobedo and princess fall are unclear.

The princess was imprisoned by Philip II in 1579, first in the Tower of Pinto, then the strength of Santorcaz and deprived of the custody of her children and the administration of his property, to be moved in 1581 to her Ducal Palace of Pastrana, where he attended perish by his younger daughter (Ana) and three servants. It is well known that the lattice palace balcony overlooking Time Square, where the princess was leaning in a melancholy countenance. After the flight of Antonio Perez to Aragon, in 1590, King Philip II ordered put bars on the doors and windows of the Ducal Palace.

It is also unclear why the cruel attitude of Philip II for Princess Anne, who in her letters called him "cousin" and called him one of them "to protect her like a gentleman." Philip II referred to her as "female". Curiously, while the attitude of Philip II to the princess was harsh and disproportionate always protected and cared for the children of this and of his late friend Ruy. She died in the town of Pastrana, being buried next to her husband in the Collegiate Pastrana.

martes, 11 de marzo de 2014

Madeleine of France.

(Tours, December 1, 1443 - Pamplona, ​​January 21, 1495) Princess of Viana and Queen Regent of Navarre.

She was the daughter of King Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou. In autumn of 1457 the Hungarian archbishop of Kalocsa, reached the French court with a retinue of 700 knights intended to ask for the hand of Princess Madeleine to the young King Ladislaus V of Hungary. The arrival of the Hungarians was well received and on 18 December of that year, Gaston of Foix, organized a big party in their honor. Trumpeters and Hungarian dancers amazed the French, and when everything seemed to have been successful, 11 days later came the news of the death of the young Hungarian monarch, after which the engagement immediately disbanded.

Soon after, in 1462, Magdalena was given in marriage to the Prince of Viana (crown prince of the kingdom of Navarre), Gaston of Foix, whose marriage were born two children: 

- Francis. King of Navarre. 
- Catherine. Queen of Navarre.

She was widowed in 1470 when her husband died from injuries he suffered in a tournament and was badly treated. Nine years later, Queen Eleanor I died I of Navarre, falling the crown on his son Francis (who was still an infant), Madeleine leaving the kingdom as regent until her son came of age. They were moments of great pressure from the Kingdoms of Castile and France, interested in marrying the young king with some of their candidates. On 30 January 1483, the young Francis was killed and his younger sister inherited the kingdom.

Little Catherine was also a minor when she inherited the kingdom, so Madeleine had to continue as Queen Regent. Madeleine married her daughter with John of Albret, to end the pressure from the kingdoms of Castile and France. However, this earned her the enmity of the Kingdom of Castile, who was nominated for the son of the Catholic Monarchs, Prince John of Aragon and Castile.

domingo, 9 de marzo de 2014

Eleanor of Navarre

(1426 - 1479) Princess of Aragon and Navarre. Queen of Navarre and Princess of Girona.

Family origins.

Born on February 2, 1426, was the youngest daughter of Prince John "Without Faith" of Aragon and Queen Bianche I of Navarre.

The problem of the Kingdom of Navarre.

John "Without Faith" was King of Navarre by marriage from the year 1425 to year 1441. His daughter was recognized by the Courts of Navarre August 9, 1427, although the heirs were his older brothers, Prince Charles and Princess Bianche.

On the death of Bianche I of Navarre, in the year 1441, John "Without Faith" seized the Kingdom of Navarre and not fulfilled the will of his wife. John "Without Faith" was King of Navarre (robbery) from 1441-1479 (and king of the territories of the Crown of Aragon). In 1445 John "Without Faith" disinherited his son, Charles of Navarre, the legitimate heir of the Kingdom of Aragon and Navarre so, Charles opposed his father and fought during the Civil War of Navarra. Eleanor was complicit in this usurpation her father, especially in times of her sister Bianche II of Navarre (1424-1464). Bianche II fell into disgrace by helping her brother Charles, which led to Eleanor should become the instrument of the Aragonese king against his children, his opponents. So, Eleanor was proclaimed, with her husband Gaston of Foix, heirs of the kingdom by the Treaty of Barcelona in 1455. Eleanor was appointed Governor General of the Kingdom of Navarre. The story goes that after the death of his older brother, Charles, her father John would have given her (as prey) her older sister Bianche II of Navarre, whom he imprisoned and died poisoned by her order.

In 1465, Eleanor managed to sign a truce and named itself "eldest princess, heiress of Navarre, princess of Aragon and Sicily, Countess of Foix and Bigorre and lieutenant general by the most serene king, my lord and father in this kingdom of Navarre ".

At this time, Eleanor and John "Without Faith" staged a battle for the throne of the Kingdom of Navarre. In 1468, John, sent to assassinate the Bishop of Pamplona, ​​the first counselor of his daughter. Later, John, dismissed his daughter by lieutenant general and introduced his grandson, Gaston. The untimely death of his grandson, John and did recap, in 1471, reappointed her daughter Eleanor as governor of the Kingdom of Navarre, although did give up the rights to the Crown of Aragon. Gaston of Foix died in 1472, when he had help from his viscounty to the kingdom of Navarre. She besieged by the expanding interests of France, Aragon and Castile saw her kingdom, which was not titular queen, was threatened and their rights over it.

In her will she claimed all the titles of his brother, Charles, in fulfillment of the will provided for her mother. She appointed heir to her grandson, Francis of Foix, recommending the protection of the king of France.

Marriage and descendants.

The July 30, 1436, she married Count Gaston IV of Foix. The couple were 11 years old and consummated the marriage would later, as the first son born in 1443. From this marriage were born 10 children:

  • Prince Gaston de Foix, Crown Prince of Navarre. He married Princess Madeleine of Orleans. His children will be kings of Navarre and his descendants will be kings of France.

  • Francis of Foix and Orleans. King of Navarre.

  • Catherine of Foix and Orleans. Queen of Navarre.

  • Prince Peter of Foix. Bishop of Vannes, Cardinal and Archbishop of Arle.
  • Prince John of Foix. Viscount of Narbonne, Count of Etampes. Father of Germaine de Foix, wife of King Ferdinand "The Catholic". 
  • Princess Mary of Foix. Marchioness of Montferrat. 
  • Prince Jaime de Foix. Marquis of Monfort. 
  • Princess Johanna of Foix. Countess of Armagnac. 
  • Princess Margaret of Foix. Duchess of Brittany. Mother of Anne of Brittany.
  • Princess Catherine de Foix, Countess of Candale. Mother Anne of Candale, Queen of Hungary.
  • Princess Elizabeth of Foix. Died in infancy.
  • Princess Eleanor of Foix. Died in infancy.

  • jueves, 6 de marzo de 2014

    Blanche I of Navarra.

    (1387 - 1441) she was Countess de Nemours and Queen of Navarre.

    Family origins.

    Daughter of Charles III of Navarre and his wife Eleanor of Castile. She was named heiress of the Kingdom of Navarre on 28 October 1416 by her father, being the larger of the two surviving daughters of marriage only.

    Marriage and descendants:

    On 21 May 1402 she married, by proxy, at the Cathedral of Catania and 26 December of the same year she married, in person, with Martin "The Young ', King of Sicily. From this marriage was born a son; 

    - Prince Martin of Aragon. Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Sicily, who died at 4 years of age.

    On the death of her husband, the king of Sicily, in 1409, Blanche came to govern the island, but finally returned to Navarre and married again.

    On 6 November 1419 she married, by proxy, at the Church of Olite and June 10, 1420 did, in person, at the Cathedral of Pamplona with Prince John of Aragon, King of Aragon future, more known as John the king "Without Faith". From this union were born: 

    - Prince Charles of Aragon. Crown Prince of Aragon and Navarre. 
    - Princess Johanna of Aragon. Died in infancy. 
    - Princess Blanche II of Navarre. Queen of Navarre and Queen consort of Castile. 
    - Princess Eleanor I of Navarre. Queen consort of Navarre and Countess of Foix.


    The loss of initiative characterized her reign. So, for her marriage to the king of Aragon, she allowed the kingdom of Navarre becomes subject at all to the will of the king of Aragon and their interests, losing (the kingdom) border territories as a result of the intervention of John II in affairs of Castile between 1428 and 1429.

    From the junction with John II, Prince Charles of Aragon was born that, according to the marriage settlement of 1419, had to inherit the Kingdom of Navarre after the death of his mother. But in the year 1441 the Queen died, John "Without Faith", usurped the throne of Navarre claiming that, in the will of the late Queen recommended to Charles did not crowned king without the consent of his father. The result was a 4-year civil war that ended with the death of Prince Charles.

    Violant of Bar

    (North of France, 1365 - Bellesguard Castle, Barcelona July 3, 1431) was Duchess consort of Girona and Countess of Cervera consort and then Queen consort of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and of Corsica. Duchess consort of Athens and Neopatria and Countess consort of Barcelona, ​​Roussillon and Cerdanya.

    Nuptials and descendants:

    In 1379, in Montpellier, she was promised in marriage to Prince John, Duke of Girona and Count of Cervera (then a widower of his first wife), against the will of King Peter III "the ceremonious" (he wanted to marry his heir with Mary of Sicily to consolidate Catalan influence in this last kingdom). Despite this, the marriage took place in 1390, in Perpignan.

    From her marriage to John I of Aragon "The Hunter", were born: 

    - Prince James of Aragón. Prince of Girona (heir) and Count of Cervera. Died at age 6. 
    - Princess Violant of Aragon. Queen Consort of Naples. 
    - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon. Prince of Girona (heir) and Count of Cervera. Died a few days after birth. 
    - Princess Antoinette of Aragon. Died a year old. 
    - Princess Eleanor of Aragon. Stillborn. 
    - Prince Peter of Aragon. Prince of Girona (heir) and Count of Cervera. He died a few months after birth. 
    - Princess Johanna of Aragon. Stillborn.

    The Queen.

    She had a very good relationship with her husband, but a very stormy relationship with her parents in-law, especially with the last wife of King Peter III, Sibyl of Fortiá. The conflict grew to such proportions that parties were created around each representative lady actually different factions of the nobility. It ended on 5 January 1387 with the death of King Peter and the ascent to the throne of John and herself. The new monarch sent imprison Sibyl, the dispossessed of all their property (property which his father had given her) and were transferred there his wife Violant.

    Thereafter, she and her husband began a life of refinement and luxury, in imitation of the great French courts. During this period, Violant, favored a strong cultural relations with France, especially in the areas of literacy, music and art.

    But the economic cost of the new orientation of the aristocratic monarchy did not adhere to the possibilities of the income as the king entered. John won, then the name of "The Poor", a name with which he passed on to posterity.

    In 1396, a hunting accident killed John. The king died without male issue and the crown belonged to his brother, Martin. Those who were opposed to the situation with the Consell de Cent of Barcelona in header, moved quickly and, as Martin was in Sicily, gave their support to the new queen, Mary de Luna, who took the reins energy and the government initiated a process against the Queen Violant. To protect and save time, the Dowager Queen Violant said being pregnant, but soon was discovered her lie. The reign lasted just nine years.

    Royalty responsibilities, but after a long judicial process that led to the death of some of her former colleagues and Bernat Metge to write one of the most important works of Catalan literature "The Dream", where the figure of the queen is glossed, the widow queen concentrated on educating the only child he had left, the Princess Violant of Aragon.


    In the literary work of Bernat Metge, "The Dream" is said about her:

    "That could mean, to be a good storyteller , the virtues of Queen Violante , wife of my lord , who here is ? With me I do not have enough, but I will tell you briefly ( as I have recently ) what I can . the feminine nature is naturally inclined to avarice and my queen, against nature, is the most liberal woman I've ever seen. Busa Cannesa , Quintus Fabius Maximus and Gilias , who in my opinion were superlatively liberal and were very greedy with it. His house has been , and still is, a temple of freedom, women much more busy in giving than in receiving Lady of great subtlety , great understanding, entrepreneurial large azañas not think any person of the living world I take advantage, . and I wish that I grant his wisdom, that Great Lady who have served long . If you hear of conjugal love , and after this, this woman does not make you unique references , do not be a distinguished historian who do not mention it , they know that there are few women like her. "