The Spanish Civil War was a military conflict, social and political that erupted in Spain, after the partial failure of the coup d'etat of 17 and 18 July 1936 carried out by the army against the government of the Second Spanish Republic , and would terminate on April 1, 1939 with the last war signed by Francisco Franco, declaring victory and established a military dictatorship that lasted until his death in 1975.
A party to the conflict they are often called, the Republican side and rebellious side:
- The Republican side was composed around the democratically elected government of Spain, formed by Popular Front, a coalition of republican parties (Republican Left and the Republican Union) with the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), which had Marxists joined the Communist Party of Spain, POUM, the Unionist Party. It was supported by the labor movement and trade unions (UGT and CNT). Also decided by the Republican side the Basque Nationalist Party, when the Republican cuts were about to approve the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country.
|Army International Brigades of the Spanish Republic|
- The rebellious side, which called itself National Side, was organized around the military high command, which appointed General Generalissimo Franco as Head of Government and State, and leaned against the fascist inspired party Spanish Falange, the Church Catholic and Conservative Right.
Both sides committed and accused each other of committing serious crimes in the front and the rears.
The rebellious side received foreign aid received all kinds of weapons and aircraft from the very first day by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, which soon added entire military units (the German Condor Legion and the Italian CTV).
As a Foreign aid, the Republic because that France and Britain did not come to his aid and also boosted the covenant that gave birth to the Non-Intervention Committee, the Republic had to acquire weapons they could.
Battle of Belchite:
The small and well-fortified town of Belchite it had been since 1937 one of the main objectives of the Republican militia.
In this battle involved 80,000 men of the newly formed Army of the East and the XI and XV International Brigade (formed by volunteers British, Canadian and American), three Republican aviation squadrons and 105 tanks (T-26 Soviet).
The battle resulted Belchite finally with the takeover by the Republicans of the town, which was completely devastated. It is estimated that 5,000 people died in 14 days.
This ancient town was never resettled.
|Belchite destroyed by the republican army|
|Battle of Belchite|
Bombing of Guernica:
The bombing of Guernica (Operation Rügen) was an aerial attack on the Spanish city on April 26, 1937, by the German Condor Legion and Italian Legionary Aviation, who fought in favor of the rebels against the government (democratically elected ) of the Second Spanish Republic. It is estimated that this attack killed between 100 and 300 people in one day.
The Guernica was not the first carpet bombing to destroy civilian population. Initially accused the rebellious side of this fact the Republican army, but international journalists grácias moment as George Steer, it is known that this attack was an exercise in proof conducted by German and Italian Aviation.
|The town of Guernica bombed by German and Italian aviation.|
Slaughter of the road between the cities of Malaga and Almeria:
This was an episode of the Civil War occurred on February 8, 1937, following the entry into the city of Malaga from the fascist troops, in which the crowd of refugees crowded the road up to Almeria, in the area under control Republican People's Army, was attacked by air and sea killing several thousand of them.
It is estimated that tens of thousands were people who tried to flee from the city of Málaga.
Participated in the bombing, and air force revolted, the Spanish warships and tanks and artillery rebels, including the German Condor Legion. The airwing Spain, loyal to the Republic, tried to defend the fugitives with little success.
Estimates of the number of fugitives from Malaga are confusing and difficult. There were an estimated 15,000 to 150,000. The action of the rebel army and its allies on the fugitives caused between 3,000 and 5,000 dead.
|People killed while fleeing down the road from Malaga to Almeria.|
|People fleeing the city of Malaga|
Repression in the rears
During the early days, about 50,000 people trapped in the fascist camp were executed by so-called "walking". These were carried out by armed groups were to find people to their homes or prisons where they were prisoners and under the euphemism of "let's take a walk" are taken to any road or the walls of the cemetery and executed.
|Fascist Military drawing from "walk" to two women (somewhere executed).|
Possibly the most publicized of such executions carried out by the national side, due to the relevance of the protagonist, is the poet and playwright Federico García Lorca in Granada Viznar ravine. It also acquired great relevance Slaughter of Badajoz perpetrated by rebel troops after the capture of that city.
|Remnant of a Newspaper with Picture of the poet Federico García Lorca, entitled "It seems that tomorrow I will take the life (of the fascist regime)" was the last thing he said to his mother. The August 19, 1936 was executed on charges of spyware and homosexual, by the fascist army.|
|Massacre of Badajoz.|
By the Republican side, the largest series of mass killings were Paracuellos Matanzas, the "bags" of prisoners in the prisons of Madrid (which were the playwright Pedro Muñoz Seca with other people intellectual, religious, political and military) and killed, most in the city of Paracuellos.
|Woman crying to her dead son. Paracuellos Massacre.|
Investigation of crimes:
After the war, the Republican side by the fascists accused of committing crimes in the first days of the war. The main allegations relate to religious persecution against Catholics, creating semi-clandestine detention centers and conducting mass killings.
|Nun burned and raped by the persecutors of the Catholic religion in Spain.|
For its part, the crimes of the victors (the fascists) were never investigated or prosecuted. The famous judge Baltasar Garzon (former Spanish judge of the Audiencia Nacional) and Raul Zaffaroni (criminal and magistrate of the Supreme Court of Argentina), as well as associations and other victims of Francoism, rebellious side argue that committed acts of genocide and crimes against humanity, because in the military records of the time show that his plans include systematic extermination and political persecution, rape of women in the Republican zone, the imposition of physical and psychological tests to link prisoners their ideology with mental illness or systematic theft Republican parents children to "eliminate ideological pollution", which are still hiding his true identity.
|Group of children stolen from their mothers (Republican women).|
Considering that those acts, by definition of crimes against humanity can not prescribe or be acquitted. Even considering this, the people who carried out these crimes against humanity remain free and unpunished.
Judge Baltasar Garzón initiated a process to investigate such facts, seeking justice and reparation for the victims of Franco. Among other considerations, argued the prosecution of genocide citing the order 211/2008 of the Central Court of Instruction No. 2, by which is considered genocide and crimes against humanity committed against the Spanish in the concentration camps National Socialists politically motivated or ideological (Franco sent to Nazi concentration camps about 470 political prisoners Spanish).
|The Spanish political prisoners held in the concentration camp of Mathaussen welcome the Allies. The sign says "The Spanish anti-fascist salute to the Allied Forces."|
The Franco regime after the war and the Republican exile:
After the war, the Franco regime began a process of repression against the losing side, starting a cleaning which was called "The Red Spain" and against anything related to the Republic, which led many into exile or death, resulting babies theft Republican parents, still unknown today, in many cases, their identity. During that time, talk about democracy, republic or Marxism was illegal and prosecutable.
The forced exile of many repressed before, during and after the war is difficult to quantify. According to its geographical position and political preferences we chose between going by sea, crossing the ocean to move to South American countries or the sea mostly the wealthy to go to England or France. Or by land across the Pyrenees to the French side, a country that many chose for its proximity to Spain and welcomed belief, demonstrating his error with facts as Bram concentration camps.
|Spanish Exiles in French concentration camps.|
|People fleeing from Spain through the Pyrenees into France.|